Used for Gingival Anesthesia in Children: RESULTS

In: Anesthesia

10 Nov 2009

Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled (12 girls and 16 boys). The subjects ranged in age from 6.4 to 17.4 years, with a mean age of 11.3 years (SD = 3.5 years). Nineteen of the subjects had sealants placed on 2 teeth. Nine subjects had sealants placed on 4 teeth.

Patch sticking was analyzed according to the per-child fraction of DPs that adhered to the oral mucosa. The mean was 29.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 16.6 to 42.9%. As the number of patients increased, the per-child fraction of DP sticking increased. This might suggest a learning effect for the operator, but this was not significant (P = .11).
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Boys and girls did not differ in the average patch sticking (P = .07). Patch sticking was dependent on age (P = .013), but the sex-by-age interaction demonstrated that age dependence differed for boys and girls (P = .021). Specifically, the per-child fraction of patch sticking increased with age for girls, increasing approximately 9 percentage points per year, but stayed the same for boys. This effect is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Fraction of patches sticking

Figure 2. Fraction of patches sticking versus age, with lines fitted for boys and girls. X indicates boys;  girls. Slanted line is for girls and the horizontal line is for boys.

Of the 74 Frankl rating readings that were taken, there were 66 ratings of 4, 4 ratings of 3, and 4 ratings of 2. Because there was very little variation in the Frankl ratings, they were not analyzed statistically, and it is a foregone conclusion that statistical analysis would provide nonsignificant results. viagra plus

Figure 3. Distribution of reported visual analog scale results

Figure 3. Distribution of reported visual analog scale results.

The Table shows a summary of the statistical analysis of the VAS scores reported for each response and each anesthetic group. Figure 3 shows a histogram of the distribution of the VAS results. The range of VAS scores was 0-100. The median VAS score was 13.5. The mean VAS score was 22.29. There were 118 scores reported in the low range (0-33). There were 19 scores reported in the moderate range (34-66). There were 11 scores reported in the high range (67-100). There was no evidence that the DP yielded lower VAS scores (pain score) than the topical anesthetic swab (P > .18 in all analyses). There was a significant relationship for “when” the pain score was recorded (P = .0001). Specifically, pain scores were higher after placing the clamp than after the sealant procedure was completed and the rubber dam clamp was removed (P < .0001; mean = 32.5 “after clamp” and 12.1 after the procedure was completed). There was not a significant relationship between the occurrence of clamp trouble and the pain score (P = .14). Whether enameloplasty was performed on the tooth did not significantly affect the pain scores (P = .95). Enameloplasty was performed on 6 teeth (8.1%) in this study. There was no significant relationship between the number of teeth treated and the pain score (P = .42). There was not a significant difference in the pain scores of boys and girls (P = .27). Boys and girls did not respond differently to the DP and the topical anesthetic swab (sex-by-treatment interaction P = .90). There were 16 subjects younger than 12 years; their average score did not differ from the subjects who were 12 years and older (P = .81). The relative effectiveness of the DP and the topical anesthetic swab also did not differ between the 2 age groups (age-by-treatment interaction P = .85). Treatment was performed on teeth in both the mandibular and maxillary arches; there was no significant difference in the pain score between the maxillary and mandibular teeth (P = .83). levitra plus


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