The Snoring Spectrum: Statistical Analysis

In: Snoring

9 Aug 2014

The Snoring Spectrum: Statistical AnalysisStatistical Analysis: The results were expressed as percentages and means (± SD) or 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Hypothesis tests were used to evaluate the presence of statistical significance among the groups. The likelihood ratio x2 test and the proportion Z test were used for categorical data analysis. Nonparametric testing was used for continuous variables with a nongaussian distribution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and partial correlation coefficients were used to determine the independent effects of selected variables on the dependent variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results
Study Population

A total of 1,139 patients were included in the study, with an average age (± SD) of 48.1 ± 13.3 years old. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were men, and 22% were women. The study population was substantially heavier than the general adult population of the United States. Of the 654 patients with a known weight and height, the median body mass index (BMI) was substantially greater than the median BMI of the general adult population of the United States in 1995, respectively: 34.2 vs 25.5 kg/m2. Obesity is defined in this study as a BMI of > 30; thus, 62% of the patients were considered obese. Descriptive statistics for each variable measured are shown in Table 1. allergy relief

The chief complaints leading to referral for polysomnographic testing were categorized into five groups: snoring (29.6%), hypersomnolence (36.2%), nighttime breathing stoppage (18.1%), narcolepsy (2.6%), and other (13.5%).
Snoring Sound Intensity During Sleep
Four measures of snoring sound intensity during sleep were tabulated for each subject: L1, L5, L10, and Leq. The distributions of these values in the study population are presented in Figures 1 through 4. An L10 value of 40 dBA was exceeded by 78.7% of the patients, and an L10 value of 50 dBA was exceeded by 34.4% of the patients. An Leq value of 38 dBA was exceeded by 84.7% of the patients, Forty-eight percent of the patients with breathing stoppage as their chief complaint had an Leq between 50 and 70 dBA. The regulations of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) limit the maximum acceptable outdoor nighttime noise levels to L10 levels of 55 dBA. This level was exceeded by 12.3% of the patients tested (12.8% of the men and 10.5% of the women).

Figure 3. Distribution of the peak decibel level L5.

Figure 3. Distribution of the peak decibel level L5.

Table 1—Summary of Study Variables

Variables Valid %, Mean (SD) Valid,N Missing,N
Demographics
Age, yr 48.1 (13.3) 1,131 8
Weight, lb 225.8 (58.4) 729 410
Height, inch 68.6(5.1) 664 475
BMI, kg/m2 33.4(8.1) 654 485
Gender 1,138 1
Male 78.3
Female 21.7
Snoring sound intensity measures
Leq 46.2 (7.9) 1,138 1
L1 56.7 (7.2) 1,135 4
l5 51.2 (6.7) 1,071 68
L10 48.8(6.1) 959 180
Polysomnographic test results
SWS 9.4 (10.4) 1,129 10
LS 76.0 (12.7) 1,131 8
Sleep efficiency 78.9 (14.2) 1,131 8
Sleep latency, min 12.2 (18.2) 1,126 13
RDI 31.0 (33.5) 1,094 45
< 10 38.6
> 10 61.4
Obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis 943 196
Yes 682 (72.3)
No 261 (27.7)
Clinical information
Chief complaint leading to the 682 457
referral for a polysomnographic
test
Snoring 29.6
Hypersomnolence 36.2
Night time breathing stoppage 18.0
Narcolepsy 2.6
Other 13.5
History of breathing stoppage 305 834
Yes 89.8
No 10.2
History of systemic hypertension 199 940
Yes 48.2
No 51.7
Duration of snoring symptoms 245 894
Recent onset 11.4
A few years 27.4
Many years 61.2
Nasal chambers 249 890
Normal 57.0
Narrow 43.0
Oropharynx 319 820
Normal 26.6
Narrow 73.4

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