In: Snoring9 Aug 2014
Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as percentages and means (± SD) or 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Hypothesis tests were used to evaluate the presence of statistical significance among the groups. The likelihood ratio x2 test and the proportion Z test were used for categorical data analysis. Nonparametric testing was used for continuous variables with a nongaussian distribution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and partial correlation coefficients were used to determine the independent effects of selected variables on the dependent variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results
A total of 1,139 patients were included in the study, with an average age (± SD) of 48.1 ± 13.3 years old. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were men, and 22% were women. The study population was substantially heavier than the general adult population of the United States. Of the 654 patients with a known weight and height, the median body mass index (BMI) was substantially greater than the median BMI of the general adult population of the United States in 1995, respectively: 34.2 vs 25.5 kg/m2. Obesity is defined in this study as a BMI of > 30; thus, 62% of the patients were considered obese. Descriptive statistics for each variable measured are shown in Table 1. allergy relief
The chief complaints leading to referral for polysomnographic testing were categorized into five groups: snoring (29.6%), hypersomnolence (36.2%), nighttime breathing stoppage (18.1%), narcolepsy (2.6%), and other (13.5%).
Snoring Sound Intensity During Sleep
Four measures of snoring sound intensity during sleep were tabulated for each subject: L1, L5, L10, and Leq. The distributions of these values in the study population are presented in Figures 1 through 4. An L10 value of 40 dBA was exceeded by 78.7% of the patients, and an L10 value of 50 dBA was exceeded by 34.4% of the patients. An Leq value of 38 dBA was exceeded by 84.7% of the patients, Forty-eight percent of the patients with breathing stoppage as their chief complaint had an Leq between 50 and 70 dBA. The regulations of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) limit the maximum acceptable outdoor nighttime noise levels to L10 levels of 55 dBA. This level was exceeded by 12.3% of the patients tested (12.8% of the men and 10.5% of the women).
Figure 3. Distribution of the peak decibel level L5.
Table 1—Summary of Study Variables
|Variables||Valid %, Mean (SD)||Valid,N||Missing,N|
|Age, yr||48.1 (13.3)||1,131||8|
|Weight, lb||225.8 (58.4)||729||410|
|Snoring sound intensity measures|
|Polysomnographic test results|
|Sleep efficiency||78.9 (14.2)||1,131||8|
|Sleep latency, min||12.2 (18.2)||1,126||13|
|Obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis||943||196|
|Chief complaint leading to the||682||457|
|referral for a polysomnographic|
|Night time breathing stoppage||18.0|
|History of breathing stoppage||305||834|
|History of systemic hypertension||199||940|
|Duration of snoring symptoms||245||894|
|A few years||27.4|
Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.