The Potential of the Nasal Mucosa Route: RESULTS

In: Health

17 Sep 2009

Changes in blood pressure are shown by percentage change, taking the value just before injection as 100%.

In the study group, the pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure before administration were 118 ± 22/min, 109 ± 17   torr, 57 ± 11 torr, and 74 ± 12 torr, respectively. In the control group, the pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure before administration were 116 ± 28/min, 104 ±18   torr, 54 ± 11 torr, and 70 ± 14 torr, respectively. Arrhythmias were not observed during the experiment period in all dogs.

Figure 2. Hemodynamic changes

Figure 2. Hemodynamic changes in the study group are shown by percent (preinjection value = 100). Heart rate (HR) at 30 seconds only demonstrated significant increase. Systolic blood pressure (Sys P), diastolic blood pressure (Dia P), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) demonstrated significant increase at all measurement points except MAP at 15 seconds (Wilcoxon test, P < .05, n = 10). Marked points represent mean ± SD.

In the study group, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure started increasing 15 seconds after administration and reached a plateau exceeding 200% of the control value. This plateau continued for 2 minutes. There was almost no change in the pulse rate during the entire measurement period (Figure 2). In the control group, there was almost no change in the circulatory parameters except for a small increase (not statistically significant) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 15 seconds after injection (Figure 3). The increased rate of plasma concentration of epinephrine in the study group was extremely high, reaching the peak value 15 seconds after administration, and gradually decreased over time (Figure 4).

Figure 3. Hemodynamic changes in both groups

Figure 3. Hemodynamic changes in both groups are shown by percent (preinjection value = 100). Heart rate (HR) in both groups remained almost unchanged, and the difference between the groups was not apparent or statistically significant. Systolic *blood pressure (Sys P), diastolic blood pressure (Dia P), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the study group demonstrated significantly high values in all measurement points except at 15 seconds of MAP (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .05, n = 10). Marked points represent mean ± SD.

Figure 4. The elevation of plasma

Figure 4. The elevation of plasma epinephrine levels in the study group was rapid enough, reaching a peak in 15 seconds. Plasma epinephrine levels at 15 and 30 seconds after injection of epinephrine demonstrated significant increase (Wilcoxon test, P < .05, n = 6). Marked points represent mean ± SD.
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