The gut is extensively innervated: the enteric nervous system (ENS) contains approximately 108 neurons (as many as in the entire spinal cord). The ENS is characterized by an extensive and elaborate network of nerves extending from the esophagus to the anal sphincter. Intrinsic neurons have cell bodies within the submucous and myenteric plexuses, while the cell bodies of extrinsic sensory nerves are in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and in the nodose ganglia. The ENS controls motility, secretion, absorption, microcirculation, sensation and immune function in the gut. The present review focuses on the role of proteinases as signalling molecules for both the extrinsic and intrinsic nerves of the ENS, through the activation of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs).
The ENS modulates inflammatory processes in several distinct ways. One way is through the release of neuropeptides upon stimulation of enteric nerves by noxious agents. Intrinsic and extrinsic enteric nerves contain neuropeptides, such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), that modulate various components of the inflammatory process. The release of neuropeptides from both intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons can initiate neurogenic inflammation. Always a nice way to discover generic sildenafil online given by the internet’s best pharmacy.
Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.