Posts Tagged ‘Propofol

Inhalation Sedation for Outpatient

This pilot study attempted to determine whether sevoflurane as a sole agent could be used as a deep sedative agent for minor surgical procedures in healthy young adults. Additionally, the quality of the sedation and the vital signs changes were compared […]

Twenty-four patients were initially enrolled in the study. One patient, a 25-year-old, 80-kg woman, developed nausea after 2 minutes of sevoflurane administration at a final vaporizer setting of 0.5%. After 3 to 4 minutes, her feeling of nausea subsided. The patient was withdrawn from the study. A conscious sedation was then planned and 10 mg of diazepam was slowly titrated. Shortly thereafter, the patient reported that she felt more relaxed […]

After approval from the Ohio State University Human Subjects Review Committee, 24 patients (17 women and 7 men) were enrolled in the study. All patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status I or II and between 18 and 40 years of age. Patients who were currently using benzodiazepines, antidepressants, or long-term analgesics were excluded from the study. Likewise, patients with a recent history of renal disease or documented […]

Inhalation Sedation

The use of the conscious inhalation sedative nitrous oxide has a long history of success and safety in the dental office provided that supplemental oxygen is administered. Nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation has a rapid onset and recovery, provides varying degrees of analgesia, and has minimal respiratory, cardiovascular, and other adverse effects. This is likely the […]


The most common untoward effect elicited by propofol is pain on injection. This is observed in 31% of patients when using the dorsum of the hand and 8% when accessing the vein in the anticubital fossa. Means of alleviating this discomfort include injecting intravenously 10 mg of […]

The effective induction dose of 1% propofol in healthy nonpremedicated adults is 2-2.5 mgAg IV. For individuals over 60, 1.5 mgAg is generally adequate. This induction dose is also reduced by premedication with benzodiazepines or opioids. In children, the dose requirement is increased by 1.5 times due to the shorter elimination half-life in the pediatric patient.

The most clinically significant pharmacodynamic properties of propofol deal with the neurologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Propofol produces rapid hypnosis and has synergistic activity when administered concurrently with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and opioids. Hypnosis is induced by the action of propofol on the alpha subunit of the 7-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in the brain. Anticonvulsant activity is exhibited by propofol and is also likely mediated by central GABA receptors. A decrease […]

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Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.