4. Recommendations 4.1 Mortality Statistics To obtain improvements in the quality of mortality statistics supplied to WHO, the following measures are recommended: 4.1.1: More rapid reporting from all countries using ICD coding system. 4.1.2: Standardization of death certificates. 4.1.3: New programs to teach the importance of death certificates and how to complete them. 4.1.4: More […]
2.6 Summary The papers presented indicate that CAD is an important disease throughout the world, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This is lamentable because CAD can be controlled by a reduction in smoking and air pollution. The lack of reliable data probably reflects the failure of health authorities and of governments to […]
2.3 Morbidity (How Severe Is CAD?) There is evidence that CAD places heavy demands on health care services. As reported in this symposium, Higgins estimates that in the USA, 1.3 percent of hospital discharges are from COPD; Holland estimates that, in the United Kingdom, respiratory diseases account for 25 percent of general practitioner consultations; Wojtyniak […]
For epidemiologic purposes, design of a questionnaire to distinguish among asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and other respiratory diseases has proved difficult. Realistically, questionnaires should not expect to define the many chronic airway diseases separately, but should aim to accurately measure a number of well-recognized symptoms. The relation of such defined symptoms to excess mortality and […]
This document summarizes the papers presented at the WHO/I UATLD meeting on chronic airways disease (CAD), sets out future research needs relating to the epidemiology of CAD, and outlines several important initiatives to be undertaken by WHO/IUAXLD. 1.2 Aims The aims of obtaining epidemiologic data relating to CAD are to obtain estimates of the magnitude […]
The role of early childhood illnesses also was featured in a study of 18-year-olds brought up in two contrasting areas, London and a relatively pollution-free new town. Results of a logistic regression analysis of findings on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms (Table 4) showed that after smoking, a history of early respiratory illnesses (bronchitis, asthma, […]
Interrelationships Between Air Pollution and Other Factors in the Development of Chronic Airways Disease One pointer in the past to the possible role of air pollution in the development of CAD was the marked urban excess of bronchitis mortality seen in the UK, but this excess has been diminishing for some considerable time (Table 2). […]
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