Most of the studies exploring personality and cancer have used nonexperimental designs that limit interpretation of the data. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether the observed psychosocial characteristics of the lung cancer patients are preexistent or are a reaction to the disease. Some studies have been done quasiprospectively, ie, identifying patients with benign and malignant lung diseases before a definitive diagnosis. This approach has the same methodologic pitfall, since lung cancers may have a latent period of several years. Psychologic data collected a few months before diagnosis may not, in fact, reflect the premorbid personality of the individual, but rather the data reflect the morbidity of disease or a complex interaction of the two. Therefore, it is very difficult to experimentally study this question. The same criticism is relevant to studies of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, where some psychosocial factors appeared to increase the risk of mortality at one year or several years later. ampicillin antibiotic
There are only a few truly prospective studies that have found that direct psychosocial factors influence the incidence and mortality in lung cancer, among other sites. Interesting data have been reported by Shekelle and his group. In 1958, 2,018 middle-aged male staff members of Western Electric Co completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The men whose depression scores were the highest value in their personality profile at that time had 2.3 times greater mortality from cancer in 1975 (ie, 17 years later) than controls (p<0.001).