Epidemiologic studies have identified about 40 chemicals, groups of chemicals, or complex mixtures that are associated with the development of cancer; 12 of them have the lung as a target organ. Environmental carcinogenesis may also play a role in the observed socioeconomic differences in lung cancer incidence. In addition, lung cancer tends to be more common in urban than rural areas in virtually all parts of the world, although air pollution is estimated to have a minimal influence compared with cigarette smoking.
Smoking behavior may still be a relevant issue for the lung cancer patient. There is relatively little information about the rate of smoking cessation in lung cancer patients. Davison and Duffy studied the smoking habits of 52 patients who had survived more than five years after surgery for lung cancer. Ninety-six percent of the patients were smokers before their operation, 56 percent stopped smoking preoperatively, and no patients smoked in the immediate postoperative period; however, 48 percent became regular smokers again, usually within a year of the operation. Cheap Diskus Advair
Little work has been done on the influence of a patients smoking behavior on his or her adjustment to the disease and its treatment. Some ways to assist patients and their family to quit smoking have been proposed.