The risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers has increased 25 to 35 percent due to passive smoking (breathing of others’ tobacco smoke). In Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and North America, the incidence rates of lung cancer are rising only in the older men, whereas in Mediterranean Europe where smoking is a more recently acquired habit, incidence rates are still increasing in men of all ages. The same phenomenon has been observed in women, with a rising incidence of lung cancer in most countries. Consequently, the behavioral and social dimensions of smoking have been studied extensively, and prevention strategies have been developed, mainly related to education (eg, encouraging medical personnel to take leadership roles) and legislation (eg, banning of tobacco advertising, limiting smoking in public places or airplanes). (More detailed information about smoking cessation efforts is described later in this review.) proventil inhaler
There are some other indirect psychosocial risk factors that play a role in the development of lung cancer. An inverse relationship between lung cancer incidence and socioeconomic status has been observed in several studies. Smoking habits contribute partly to these socioeconomic differences. However, occupational risk factors, such as exposure to asbestos, are also strongly linked with lower social class.