A rapidly fatal course forces the patient and family to confront many fundamental changes in everyday life that require correspondingly rapid adjustment. In addition, family members play an important role in the physical and emotional care of the lung cancer patient, and little is known about the impact of this disease on their function. There is a need for systematic research on the psychosocial concerns of lung cancer patients to facilitate the development of supportive interventions for the patient, family, and social network, and to monitor more effectively the risks and benefits of treatment. antibiotics levaquin
In this article, we review the literature since 1975 concerning psychosocial issues in lung cancer, tracing the historical development of this field and exploring current trends (Table 1). We will focus primarily on articles that deal with lung cancer patients; however, until recently, many studies have examined heterogeneous samples of cancer patients rather than patients with one type of cancer. Where specific investigations in lung cancer are not available, we will rely on more general psychosocial oncology literature. We will review the psychosocial risk factors for incidence and mortality from lung cancer, psychosocial issues related to the disease and its treatment, and briefly describe new work on the assessment of quality of life. Finally, we will discuss areas that need further investigation.
Table 1—Historical Development of Psychosocial Issues <n Lung Cancer Research
Shift of Emphasis
Personality traits as direct psychosocial risk factors
Smoking behavior as indirect psychosocial risk factors; prevention programs
General psychosocial impact of the disease and its treatment
“Quality of life” as a new end point in clinical trialsSupportive care; biopsychosocial interventions