Pain is an important palliative care problem in lung cancer patients, yet there are only a few descriptive studies that deal with pain in lung cancer specifically. Marino et al examined the subjective and objective characteristics of pain in 164 patients with early lung cancer. Pain was present in 40 percent of their sample, and a relationship was found between the location of the neoplasm, the location of the pain, and the characteristics of the sensory changes. In a heterogeneous sample of 667 cancer patients, Daut and Cleeland found that the frequency of cancer-related pain varied with the extent of disease (metastatic disease 57 percent vs 17 percent in nonmetastatic disease). In this study, pain was often of at least moderate intensity and was believed to interfere with the patients activity and enjoyment of life to a moderate or severe degree. From other similar studies of patients with heterogeneous cancer sites, it can be concluded that pain is experienced in 30 to 40 percent of lung cancer patients with early disease and 60 to 90 percent of lung cancer patients with advanced disease. buy yasmin online
Several classifications of pain have been proposed.’ Adler and Hiimy emphasize the clinical importance of a differential diagnosis of pain in cancer patients, including pain due to tumor infiltration/ compression, pain associated with cancer treatment, pain of organic origin other than cancer, pain of organic origin enhanced by psychosocial factors, and psychogenic pain.