In summary, indirect and direct risk factors for incidence and mortality in lung cancer should be considered from more than a purely biomedical perspective. Prevention of lung cancer and other smoking-related neoplasms can only be accomplished by developing strategies that address the psychologic and social behaviors associated with smoking. Direct psychosocial factors may contribute to the development of cancer (eg, depression), but they have not been related specifically to lung cancer.
In this section, we review the psychosocial impact of a variety of disease- and treatment-specific problems experienced by lung cancer patients. The separation into these categories is somewhat arbitrary, and some problems may be manifestations of both the disease and/or its treatment. Similarly, separation of the objective or physical symptoms from the subjective or psychologic effects of the lung cancer experience can be difficult. For clarity, we have organized our discussion in this section according to the topics found in Table 3. buy cheap antibiotics
Cancer and its treatment can affect all aspects of daily living for the patient. In our review, we have not discussed issues related to sexuality and sexual dysfunction, nor the work experience and economic impact of lung cancer, since to our knowledge, no articles specific to lung cancer exist in these areas. Several general reviews on these topics are available and should be referred to for more information.
Table 3—Psychosocial Issues Related to Lung Cancer and Its Treatment