Smoking and personality factors have also been studied as combined risk factors for lung cancer. However, more systematic work would be necessary to elucidate the postulated interactions, for example, that the consequences of smoking behavior on health are primarily mediated by personality factors such as “anti-emotionality. ”‘ antibiotic levaquin
The hypothesis related to personal loss will not be discussed in detail herein; it has been reviewed elsewhere. The risk of death after the loss of a marriage partner has been discussed recently, especially for men. However, the data do not support loss as a specific risk factor for death from cancer in the surviving partner. Rather, the increased morbidity and mortality in the bereaved individual reflects vulnerability to multiple diseases.
A personal sense of loss or failure may also occur within the individual with cancer. Frequently, patients have a desire to know why cancer has happened to them (“why me?”). Good health has positive value and is associated with personal responsibility, whereas having a chronic or serious disease often is associated with a sense of personal failure. Even when an individual lung cancer patient has no known etiologic risk factors, the patient and significant others may still consider the patient responsible in some way for the disease. Very little work has been done on this question in lung cancer. However, causal attributions appear to play an important role in the adjustment to some cancers, especially in restoring self-esteem.