None of the patients with pneumothoraces had a preexisting condition known to be associated with the development of secondary pneumothorax. Three of the eight patients with pneumothoraces, however, were receiving mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) support prior to the development of pneumothorax. Given the likelihood that the occurrence of pneumothorax was secondary to barotrauma, not PCP, in these three cases, the remaining five cases of PCP with pneumothorax were compared with the zero cases of non-PCP AIDS with pneumothorax. Statistical significance (p<0.05) was still achieved.
The demographic and clinical characteristics of the eight patients with PCP and pneumothorax are shown in Table 1. In three of them (patients 1, 2, and 5), bilateral pneumothoraces developed after mechanical ventilation with PEER In patient 3, pneumothorax developed more than 72 h after an invasive procedure (Broviac catheter placement). In patients 4, 7, and 8, “spontaneous” pneumothoraces developed during the hospitalization when PCP was diagnosed. In patient 6, the pneumothorax developed seven months after the diagnosis of PCP. In six of the eight patients the lungs reexpanded without tube thoracostomy, despite the large size of the pneumothorax in some cases; in the other two (patients 1 and 2), the pneumothorax resolved after chest tube placement.
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