Pain and Unpleasantness Evoked by a Cold Pressor Test

In: Main

9 Mar 2010

Pain and Unpleasantness

Distraction and attention can exert a powerful influence on the perceived intensity of painful stimuli. Previous studies on modulation of pain and unpleasantness have documented the effect of showing movies and have demonstrated that humor, repulsive scenes, as well as tragedy can increase pain tolerance. Furthermore, visual distraction with the use of a kaleidoscope has been shown to possess a pain-reducing effect in children undergoing venipuncture. In connection with dental procedures, the use of video games and video comedy programs has been shown to distract dental patients. Music and noise have been used and tested as a method of reducing pain, but these studies have not yet given a clear picture of the effect. A recent study has indicated lower pain threshold and tolerance among females compared with males during thermal stimuli.

A new audio-visual equipment, ie, video glasses, which have been developed for virtual reality purposes, has the capability of showing three-dimensional (3D) as well as traditional two-dimensional (2D) movies. The sound is transmitted through incorporated headphones held together in a headset. This gives a unique chance to use video and music simultaneously as distraction during dental treatment, a possibility that has not previously been explored. As an experimental pain model, the cold pressor test has been chosen because it provides a standardized and relatively strong pain stimulus and has been widely used. Visual analogue scales (VASs) have become one of the standards used to measure the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness.

Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether distraction induced by 3D or 2D video transmitted through video glasses has an effect on the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness evoked by a cold pressor stimulus. canadian antibiotics

The specific null hypotheses to be tested were Hb that there would be no effect on pain/unpleasantness intensity watching 3D film compared with no video glasses during a cold pressor test; H2, that there would be no effect on pain/unpleasantness intensity watching 2D film compared with no video glasses during a cold pressor test; and H3, that there would be no differences between males and females in the effect of video glasses.


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Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.