In: Health9 Sep 2009
The University of Toronto Animal Care Committee in accordance with the regulations of the Ontario Animal Research Act (Canada) approved the following protocol. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 225 and 400 g each were prepared for the continuous measurement of one-dimensional tissue expansion, as previously described by Fiorentino et al and Wong et al, and for the acute recording of jaw muscle EMG activity as previously described by Cairns et al. Therefore, only a brief description of the methodology follows.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of local anesthetic blockade of afferent innervation on the development of capsaicin-induced edema in the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region and on reflex jaw muscle activity. Under halo-thane anesthesia, 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared for monitoring of edema development by lateral movement of a needle overlying the left TMJ region and for acute recording of electromyographic activity in ipsilateral digastric and mas-seter muscles. A double-barrel catheter was inserted into the TMJ region for delivery of saline or 0.5% bupivacaine from 1 needle, followed with the injection of 1% capsaicin, 0.1% capsaicin, or vehicle control from the other needle 5 minutes later. Application of capsaicin into the saline pretreated TMJ region led to dose-dependent edema development and reflex jaw muscle activity; however, only 1% capsaicin solution resulted in significant tissue expansion and muscle activity when compared with the vehicle control. Pretreatment of the rat TMJ region with bupivacaine failed to inhibit capsaicin-induced edema development, although successful blockade of nerve conduction was confirmed with the absence of reflex jaw muscle activity. Capsaicin-induced edema of the rat TMJ region developed independent of axonal conduction, suggesting neurogenic inflammation may arise regardless of functional nerve conduction.
If you have been thinking about having cosmetic surgery, you’ve probably devoted a lot of time to thinking about the benefits and possible risks of the procedure. One aspect of surgery your may have overlooked is the matter of anesthesia. Most surgery requires some form of anesthesia for pain relief.
Before you have any type of cosmetic procedure, you should learn more about the type of anesthesia you will need and what using that kind of pain relief will mean. There are three different types of anesthesia that may be used during cosmetic surgery:
What is Local Anesthesia?
Local anesthesia involves injecting a numbing agent into a localized area. The area that will be affected by the surgery receives anesthesia to block pain sensation. Local anesthesia is only used during surgeries that are fairly minor and that only involve a small area of the body. In many cases, you will be able to remain awake and alert during the procedure. However, some surgeries require the use of sedation that will allow you to relax or even sleep through the surgery.
Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.