Anesthesia Progress Blog - Part 10

Innovative ChemotherapyXenografts and In vitro Drug Sensitivity Testing
Over 150,000 cases of lung cancer occur in the USA annually, nearly 90% of whom will die of their disease with a median life expectancy of less than 1 year. Obviously, we need both new drugs as well as new therapeutic concepts. While the latter ideas are discussed by other contributors to this issue, this report will focus on the use of animal and cell culture models for the selection of individualized chemotherapy as well as for the identification of new therapeutic agents. cialis professional
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C. “Natural killer cell” antigens: In 1984 Ruff and Pert reported the presence of reactive sites on SCLC shared by specific markers for macrophages. They suggested a hemopoietic stem cell origin for SCLC. Later, the expression of certain natural killer cell antigens such as Leu-725 and NKH-l were identified. Leu-7 was demonstrated in 16/20 SCLC tumors, in occasional non-SCLC tumors (7/33) and in all the carcinoids (6/6). These antibodies seem to react with a number of neuroendocrine cells, but are apparently quite suggestive of SC IX when present in malignant lung tumors. Read the rest of this entry »

The Clinical Relevance of Recent Developments in Pathology and Biology of Small Cell Lung Cancer: Specific peptidesB. Specific peptides: Multiple peptides have been demonstrated in SCLC tumors based on immunohistochemistry. At present the literature is loaded with studies using different antibodies, which hampers an interpretation of the results. Bombesin or the mammalian homologue, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), has attracted considerable interest. It acts apparently as an autocrine growth factor for SCLC, and it is noteworthy that the growth of SCLC cells in vitro and in xenografts can be inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to GRP” While GRP has been demonstrated frequently in experimental models, it has been difficult to identify this peptide on formalin-fixed surgical material. Read the rest of this entry »

It has been known for decades that SCLC has a great potential for producing multiple endocrine “markers.” Following the rapid development in immunocytochemistry and monoclonal antibodies during the past decade, much interest has been devoted to a variety of malignant lung tumors including SCLC. The studies have particularly concentrated on the following subjects: (A) general neuroendocrine markers, (B) specific peptides, and (C) more unspecific small cell antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of the studies has been to achieve more information about the biology of the tumors, the interrelationship between the different histologic types, and to reveal whether various antibodies can be used to improve the histopathologic classification. fully
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The Clinical Relevance of Recent Developments in Pathology and Biology of Small Cell Lung CancerSmall cell lung cancer (SCLC) has emerged over the last 10-15 years as a distinct pathologic and clinical entity, characterized by early and wide dissemination and with a great sensitivity to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite the objective response to chemotherapy in more than 85%, most of the patients sooner or later develop clinical relapse, and fewer than 10% become long-term survivors. The need is thus urgent for more biologic knowledge about this disease, and great efforts have been put into this field of research by scientists all over the world. Through detailed studies, especially on more than 100 established cell lines from SCLC, much biologic information has been accumulated including the relationship of SCLC to both other histologic types of lung cancers and to endocrine tumors. The present short overview deals with the clinical significance of recent scientific developments in the histopathologic and biologic studies of SCLC. Link
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This activity may be a somewhat different molecular weight than depressant molecules that have been previously described. This difference may be due to the fact that the myocyte system in the present study is capable of assessing in vitro myocardial cell performance using unmodified serum. Previous studies analyzing the properties of cardiodepressant substances have used plasma ultrafiltrates of cat hemorrhagic shock or rat endotoxic shock models that have limited applicability to the myocardial depression seen in human septic shock. The difference might also be attributable to the occurrence in human septic shock of more than one myocardial depressant molecule, with differing molecular weights. Another possibility is that several active, identical low molecular weight molecules can combine to form a higher molecular weight macromolecule that also has depressant activity.
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A Circulating Myocardial Depressant Substance is Associated with Cardiac Dysfunction and Peripheral Hypoperfusion: MDS activityThe in vitro myocardial cell contractility assay employed in this study represented a modification of a previously described cell culture system.’ The addition of the latex microspheres improved the reliability of the system. Using this revised method, the amount of depression can be quantified reproducibly. Since the sensitivity of the cell culture system changes as the cells mature, it is imperative to choose cultures at the same level of maturation each time an assay is performed. With the initial system that did not use latex beads, small changes in the relationship of myocardial cell edge to the microscope optics caused technical difficulties. Read the rest of this entry »

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Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.