M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms were recorded from standard views and measured according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE),H using a commercially available phased-array echocardiography (General Electric, Pass II, Milwaukee, WI). Left ventricular (LV) mass w’as calculated in grams using the ASE recommendations with the following equation:
LV Mass = 1 05[(LVDD + PW +1 VS)1 – (LVDD)3] where IVS = interventricular septal thickness, LVDD = left ventricular diastolic dimension, and PW = left ventricular posterior wall thickness. Stroke volume (SV) was calculated in milliliters from the M-mode by the following equation:
SV = (LVDD)3 — (LVSD)3 where LVSD = left ventricular systolic dimension. buy diabetes drugs
Data are given as mean±SD unless otherwise specified. Data from the whole group and from the subgroups approximated normality and demonstrated homogeneous variance as assessed by Shapiro-Wilks and Lilliefors tests and Cochrans’ C test, respectively. Group cardiac structural and functional characteristics were compared by Students t tests and analysis of variance. The determinants of left atrial size were analyzed in each of the two groups by least-squares step-wise multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis was performed on a microcomputer with a commercially available1 statistical package* (SPSS/PC ’).
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