We attempted to enroll an entire seventh grade class of a local school district (Artesia Bellflower Cerritos) in this study. Forty-seven normotensive adolescents were available and were examined with two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, and BP measurements were obtained by two-hour automated BP monitoring. Seven subjects were excluded because the P-wave in ECG lead V, was either absent or of insufficient amplitude for analysis (see below). This left 40 subjects who comprised the study group. The mean age of the study participants was 13 ±0.9 years and there were 24 boys and 16 girls. There were no gender-related differences in echocardiographic left ventricular or BP parameters except for a slightly higher diastolic BP by mercury sphygmomanometer in female subjects (71 ±8 mm Hg vs 64 ±8 mm Hg, p<0.05). Since our study group was small and there were no significant differences between male and female subjects in the parameters of interest, the male and female subjects were grouped together for all subsequent analyses. Eighteen subjects had a family history of hypertension assessed by history provided by the subjects parents. Blood pressure, measured by standard mercury sphygmomanometer, was less than 140/90 mm Hg in all subjects. All subjects were in good health; they were without known cardiac, pulmonary, or renal disease; and all had normal two-dimensional echocardiograms and ECGs. Height and weight measurements were obtained and body surface area was calculated. Age, gender, body weight, and height were used to calculate percent ideal body weight (weight expressed as a percentage of standard weight). Informed consent approved by our Institutional Review Board was obtained from all subjects and their parents. buy ampicillin
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