Patient Sampling Techniques: This standard required that the study included consecutive patients or a random sample of consecutive patients in order to avoid sampling bias.
Analysis of Pertinent Subgroups: Diagnostic tests may perform well on average for a large study population but fail for certain defined subgroups. The pertinent subgroup standard required that the article evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the tests in one or more explicitly defined subgroups (eg, gender group, ethnic group, groups defined by disease stage).
Test Review Bias: Accurate determination of a new test’s performance requires that the diagnostic test under evaluation and the reference standard be interpreted objectively. This study standard for “blinding” varied depending on the article’s experimental design birthcontroltab.com buy birth control. For cohort studies wherein the reference standard procedure always followed the diagnostic test, a statement was required that the reference standard procedure was interpreted independently of the diagnostic test. For cohort studies wherein the reference standard procedure was sometimes performed before and other times after the diagnostic test, a statement was required that both the diagnostic test and the reference standard were interpreted independently. For case-control studies wherein the reference standard preceded the diagnostic test, a statement was required indicating that the diagnostic test was interpreted without knowledge of the reference standard result.
Workup (or “Verification”) Bias: This standard was met for cohort studies if all of the study patients were submitted to both the diagnostic test under evaluation and the reference standard procedure. The standard could also be fulfilled with suitable follow-up if the reference standard was unfeasible (too expensive or invasive) for patients with negative test results. For case-control studies wherein the diagnostic test preceded the reference standard procedure, the standard was met if the reference standard procedure was applied to a consecutive series of patients regardless of their diagnostic test result. For case-control studies wherein the diagnostic test followed the reference standard procedure, the standard was met if the test results were stratified by the clinical factors that prompted performance of the reference standard procedure.