Biologic Associations of Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors
Klinefelter Syndrome: In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of unique associations of mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors with a variety of clinical conditions such as nongerm cell malignancies and certain karyotypic abnormalities. The first of these clinical/biologic associations to be recognized was the association of Klinefelter syndrome with the development of mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
Several case reports of this association prompted a prospective investigation at Indiana University to determine the incidence of Klinefelter syndrome among patients with mediastinal germ cell tumors. Between 1984 and 1986, 22 consecutive patients with primary mediastinal germ cell tumor underwent chromosomal analysis. Four of these patients (18 percent) had the karyotpye 47,XXY. Numerous case reports in the literature confirm this association and further suggest that up to 20 percent of patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ gell tumors have Klinefelters syndrome. birth control yasmin
Malignant Nongerm Cell Elements: As experience with the histopathology of germ cell tumors grew, several unusual variants of germ cell tumors were recognized.
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