Epidemiology of Chronic Airways Disease: Research Needs

In: Airways Disease

2 Dec 2014

2.6 Summary
The papers presented indicate that CAD is an important disease throughout the world, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This is lamentable because CAD can be controlled by a reduction in smoking and air pollution. The lack of reliable data probably reflects the failure of health authorities and of governments to recognize the magnitude of the problem. This point was brought out by Chaulet, who commented that in Africa there are well-developed programs to manage tuberculosis and acute respiratory infections, but little attention is being paid to CAD. It is essential to direct future research toward collecting accurate information of prevalence rates and risk factors in order that effective measures to prevent and control CAD can be implemented.

3. Research Needs
There is an urgent need to obtain reliable data to assess the magnitude and nature of CAD, and to investigate the role of identified and putative risk factors. Such data depend on the institution of high-quality epidemiologic studies in carefully selected populations in both developed and developing countries. Protocols applicable for both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies should be developed and used. In addition to information about respiratory illness history and lung function, standardized information about putative risk factors should also be documented. Improved computerized methods for multivariate risk factor analysis are now available and can provide information about relative contributions of risk factors to CAD. When longitudinal studies are conducted, complete follow-up data are essential. health and care mall

Importantly, research studies should be specifically designed to address the following questions, in order of priority:
3.1 What are the optimal strategies for the prevention and control of CAD?
3.2 What is the relation between acute respiratory infection in childhood and CAD in later life?
3.3 What are the reasons for the differences in mortality from CAD (other than tobacco smoking)?
3.4 Are there differences within and between countries of similar economic development, similar exposure to pollutants and similar tobacco exposure?
3.5 What are the environmental and genetic factors that influence the variations in mortality and morbidity from asthma?
3.6 What are the effects of indoor air pollution on the development of CAD, with particular reference to average levels and peak levels of S02, NO,, and aeroallergens?
3.7 Do different forms of CAD occur in response to different forms of tobacco smoking (low-tar, nonfilter, unprocessed tobacco etc)?

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