Colorectal polyposis and immune-based therapies

In: Colorectal polyposis

29 Aug 2012

Adenomatous polyposis

Adenomatous polyposis of the colon and colorectal cancer are diseases in which specific antigens or cytokine receptors are expressed on the cell surface of the tumour. Recently, there has been much investigation into the immunosuppressive and molecular-based events that allow colon adenomas to grow into metastatic lesions. Despite the actions of T helper cells TH1 and TH2 immune responses to foreign antigens, colorectal cancers are no less capable of invading and overwhelming host defences. There are several possible hypotheses explaining how tumour cells evade host immune responses, the most crucial of which involve cytokine receptors, death factors, antibody-targeted superantigens, tumour-infiltrating T cells and anticytokine antibodies.

The role of cytokines in the immunological response is critical to an understanding of the malignant disease process and the mechanisms of action of antitumour therapies. The present review looks at the role of cytokines in host-tumour interactions and reviews the uses of cytokine treatments and immunotherapy in treating colorectal cancer.

Most colon cancers arise within pre-existing polyps or adenomas. Cytokines, angiogenic factors and matrix proteins are thought to be the driving force in the gradual transformation of a premalignant polyp to a cancerous lesion . Sporadic colorectal cancer develops from precancerous adenomatous polyps due to somatic gene mutations that can occur over a period of years or decades . In the presence of precancerous polyps, interstitial fibroblasts in the normal colon are transformed into myofibroblasts . Myofibroblasts are distinct cells that have the ability to secrete cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins (PGs) and growth factors, and are considered critical in augmenting inflammation and neoplasia. A pharmacy deserving your trust and giving you along with other services.


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