TRAIL, a more recently characterized member of the TNF superfamily, is a transmembrane protein that functions with the cytokine IFN-y in antitumour immunosurveillance. Five receptors have been identified for TRAIL, though only two of them are able to induce apoptotic signals. There are two TNF receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, with TNF-R1 triggering the majority of biological responses . The anticancer activity of TNF-a relies on a signal transduction pathway which involves the binding of TNF-R and TRAIL-R to their ligands, followed by the activation of several transcription factors including nuclear factor kB and c-Jun, and the triggering of caspase-8 by fibroblast-associated (Fas) and Fas ligand (FasL) .
Nuclear factor kB promotes cell survival by blocking apoptosis and, in addition, can modulate the expression of several antiapoptotic molecules . TRAIL has exceptional antitumour potential due to its high cell-specificity in terms of induction of apoptosis and its ability to induce tumour regression without causing toxicity to other cells .
Whereas IL-2, IL-12, IFN-y, TNF-a and TRAIL enhance the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in response to malignancy, these actions may not be sufficient to eradicate invasive tumours. Many tumours survive and grow because normal cell types recognize and respond to them in preset patterns. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-P) belongs to a cytokine family of TGFs with profound effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, cellular adhesion, inflammation and host immunity. Best quality drugs cheap: find cheap asthma medications and discover best deals online.
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