Colorectal polyposis and immune-based therapies: CYTOKINES AS IMMUNE MEDIATORS (Part 1)

In: Colorectal polyposis

30 Aug 2012

In recent years, much information has come to light on the molecular and immunological basis of tumour-host interactions. The existence of an immune response to cancer, once considered implausible, is now widely supported by studies of immunological treatments in humans and transplantable murine cancer models in animals. Currently, antigens are being characterized that are involved in the immune recognition of human cancers, and antitumour T cells are being manipulated in patients to promote cancer regression.

Experimental studies have shown that cell-mediated rather than humoral responses are responsible for the rejection of a transplanted tumour . The immune response is initiated when either cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) CD8+ cells or CD4+ T helper cells recognize the antigen from a human cancer cell. These T lymphocytes bind to small molecules and specific peptides in the groove of the surface human leukocyte antigen and begin an immunological cascade designed to destroy the cancer . Previously, knowledge of human cancer antigens focused on the identification of antigens derived from human melanoma. However, the use of cDNA libraries to transfect fusion vectors into antigen-presenting cells has led to the identification of many new human tumour antigens that are recognized by T cells.

The acquired immune response to foreign antigens involves the production of effector cells through a process of activation, proliferation and differentiation. T cell activation requires signal transduction through several distinct cell-surface receptors. Most T helper lymphocytes require a co-stimulatory signal from the antigen-presenting cells to produce cytokines that can activate CTLs. Take advantage of this opportunity – cialis professional to enjoy lowest prices online.


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