After DNA replication, stromal cells differentiate into decidual cells with characteristic changes in morphology. Decidual cells express alkaline phosphatase and placental lactogens and are joined by gap junctions. In the mouse uterus, a population of periluminal stromal cells replicate their DNA but do not undergo mitosis. Decidual nuclei are polyploid, as the chromosomes fail to separate at metaphase and increased ploidy from 4 to 32 n is reported. While endomitosis […]
The second important function of estrogen in vivo may be to stimulate the production of growth factors whose synthesis is not required when they are added to the culture system. We have shown that proliferating stromal cells in culture express a single form of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, demonstrating the […]
A major concern regarding the usefulness of this model is the apparent lack of estrogen-dependent proliferation. While a nidatory amount of estradiol is required to initiate stromal cell proliferation in vivo, no direct effect of estrogen on cell cycle progression in uterine stromal cells has been demonstrated. Therefore, our interpretation of the existing evidence is that estrogen functions in two important aspects of stromal cell proliferation (see Fig. 5). First, […]
Stromal cells cultured in serum-free medium for 72 h were stimulated to synchronously reenter the cell cycle by addition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and progesterone. It should be kept in mind, as the flow cytometry analyses showed (Fig. 1), that all of the cells do not require stimulation into […]
In humans and in rodents, stromal cells proliferate and differentiate into large, polyploid cells with characteristic morphology. A variety of markers exist that are associated with differentiation of rat and human decidual cells. While these markers have proved useful, their expression does not correlate strictly with the fully differentiated phenotype. Cultured stromal cells expressing ‘‘decidual markers’’ continue to proliferate. Differentiation programs are normally initiated as cell proliferation and growth arrest […]
Since hormones may also act directly and stimulate expression of genes required for cell cycle transit, identifying hormone-dependent versus growth factor-mediated changes in cell cycle progression is essential. For example, estrogen and progesterone increase c-Jun and c-fos mRNAs in the ovariectomized rat uterus; but it is not clear […]
Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms involved in cellular differentiation has been possible because of our increased appreciation of the regulation of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. The convergence of these two fields is critical because differentiation programs are normally initiated as cell proliferation decreases and arrest occurs. This concept, supported by experimental evidence in a variety of cell types, clearly indicates that increased understanding of endocrine control of […]
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