The role of early childhood illnesses also was featured in a study of 18-year-olds brought up in two contrasting areas, London and a relatively pollution-free new town. Results of a logistic regression analysis of findings on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms (Table 4) showed that after smoking, a history of early respiratory illnesses (bronchitis, asthma, […]
Interrelationships Between Air Pollution and Other Factors in the Development of Chronic Airways Disease One pointer in the past to the possible role of air pollution in the development of CAD was the marked urban excess of bronchitis mortality seen in the UK, but this excess has been diminishing for some considerable time (Table 2). […]
Indoor/Outdoor Relationships Although the topic of indoor pollution is considered in a separate article, the extent to which people are actually exposed to pollutants of outdoor origin deserves some comment. Most people in developed countries spend a large proportion of their time indoors, which can be protective. The modern tendency in the interests of fuel […]
Control Measures In view of points made above, attention is directed here mainly to the avoidance of exposure to combustion products from domestic or industrial sources. The indications are that in many countries the control measures already instituted have reduced urban concentrations of sulfur dioxide and particulates to levels considered not to produce detectable effects […]
Outdoor Pollutants The traditional kind of pollution associated with the London “smogs” that became notorious in the latter part of the 19th century through the early 1960s was that from the incomplete combustion of coal, leading to the emission of black smoke and sulfur dioxide. Its special feature was that the major contribution to urban […]
Thirty to 40 years ago, any review of factors relating to the development or exacerbation of chronic airways disease (CAD) would have stressed the role of urban air pollution but, as accompanying articles show, the major efforts that have been made to control the principal pollutants have greatly reduced their impact. This is true of […]
The expiratory images were assessed for the presence and lobar distribution of air trapping. The criteria used to diagnose the presence of air trapping were alteration of normal anteroposterior lobar attenuation gradients and/or lack of homogeneous increase in lung attenuation resulting in persistent areas of hypoattenuation. The extent of air trapping was quantified and categorized […]
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