A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Mandibular Local Anesthesia Techniques in Children Receiving Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Sedation. METHODS

In: Health

11 Sep 2009

Local Anesthesia Techniques in Children Receiving Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Sedation


Healthy children who needed a pulpotomy treatment in a lower primary molar and had no contraindication for local anesthetic were eligible for the study. On the day of treatment, after the initial consultation, parents of el­igible children requiring pulpotomy were approached by office staff and informed of the study; written informed consent of the parent and assent of the child were then obtained. There were few refusals. A total of 106 children aged 5-8 years were initially enrolled. A total of 55 girls with average age of 76 months (SD = 11 months) and 46 boys with an average age of 79 months (SD = 13 months) completed the study. One child was withdrawn after consenting but before participation. Four study forms were misplaced after data collection, and those children were excluded. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Washington.


A 2-group randomized blinded controlled design was employed. The study was conducted in a private pediatric dental practice in Mount Vernon, Wash. Medication you can afford canadian viagra


Primary Outcome Measure. Assessment of the level of pain experience by the child was measured using the Color Analogue Scale (CAS). The CAS is a vertical 14.5-cm scale that is graduated from white at the bot tom, where it is labeled “No Pain,” to very red at the top where it is labeled “Most Pain.” The child uses a sliding marker to give pain reports. Children aged 5 and above have been shown to be able to use such scales. In this study, the scale was increased proportionately in size to a length of 21 cm, with the same gradation in color. This was to allow the child to hold the scale rigidly and be able to move the marker easily from a supine position in the dental chair. The scale has a numerical scale on the back from 0 to 10, with 0.25 gradations, so the administrator of the measure could quickly determine the number representing the child’s pain level. Suffer no more! Buy levitra plus online at a price you can afford.

Each child was pretested with the CAS by the research staff to make sure he or she was able to comprehend and use the scale. Five nondental questions relating to situations of pain with various intensities were asked. Children who were not able to use the CAS effectively were excluded.

Dentist Measure. A 3-category scale was used by the clinician to rate the effectiveness of the local anesthesia. The categories were effective, partially effective, and ineffective. Don’t blow your budget on pharmacy items cheap flomax now

Other Measures. Paper and pencil measures were completed in the waiting room prior to treatment. The Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) was used to assess dental fear. This inventory consists of 15 items and uses a 5-point Likert format with item scores ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very afraid). Total scores range from 15 to 75, with scores exceeding 37 indicating high fear. Parents completed a symptom questionnaire that asked if the child had acute dental pain prior to the appointment.

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Blog invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, conference summaries, and articles of opinion pertinent to the control of pain and anxiety in dentistry.